Friday, January 10, 2020

Behavioral Management in the Developmentally Disabled

This paper will dwell on the behavioral management for the developmentally challenged individual. This paper seeks to provide a general understanding on how the on how clients with developmental disabilities are improve with regard to their conditions.Therefore, the following will be discussed: †¢ The process of Occupational Therapist in modifying behavioral development of disabled person; †¢ Techniques employed to assist the developmentally challenged individual;†¢ Way used by the Occupational Therapist to help a disabled individual write; and †¢ Identify the techniques and tools used by the Occupational Therapist in behavioral management for developmentally challenged individual. Moreover, this paper will focus in two developmental disabilities that exist today in the society. More specifically these are autism and dyslexia. Functions of Occupational Therapist There are four functions of occupational therapists.First, they are ask to put into application the kno wledge, skills and abilities they have acquired in their years of training in the academe for the benefit of enabling people to live normal lives and immerse themselves with the daily tasks (â€Å"A Definition of Occupational Therapy,† n. d. ). Second, is to assist, maintain, regain and enhance the independence of an individual who is ill, injured, disabled and psychologically impaired (â€Å"A Definition of Occupational Therapy,† n. d. ).Third, engage the relatives of the client and other people who are connected such as the caregiver (â€Å"A Definition of Occupational Therapy,† n. d. ). This can be achieved through comprehensive assessment and therapy with the goal of increasing the capacity of client to participate in daily activities (â€Å"A Definition of Occupational Therapy,† n. d. ). Lastly, to accordingly deal with the problems of the client by focusing on three things: ability to accomplish, undertakings of the client and the environment where the undertakings are performed (â€Å"A Definition of Occupational Therapy,† n.d. ). Meaning of Autism Autism, also classified as classical Autism is considered as the most prevalent condition amongst the family of Autism Spectrum Disorder or better known as ASD (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [NINDS], 2006). One can discern Autism through the following symptoms: a) â€Å"impaired social interaction,† b) â€Å"problems with verbal and nonverbal communication,† and c) â€Å"unusual, repetitive, or severely limited activities and interests† (NINDS, 2006).In addition to this, the cluster of Autism Spectrum Disorder or ASD includes other conditions. These are – a) â€Å"Asperger syndrome,† b) â€Å"Rett syndrome,† c) â€Å"childhood disintegrative disorder,† and d) â€Å"pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (usually referred to as PDD-NOS)† (NINDS, 2006). Statistics shows that in every 1000 children three to six will be affected by autism (NINDS, 2006) Furthermore, Men are four times more prone or at risk of acquiring such behavioral disorder like autism than women.(NINDS, 2006) Meaning of Dyslexia Dyslexia, pronounced as dis-lek-see-uh is a type of learning disorder that some of the children encounter that impairs their ability to read and spell (â€Å"Dyslexia,† n. d. ). What may seem C-A-T to normal people would appear A-C-T to dyslexic individuals. It is not a measure of whether a child is intelligent or not but is rather an impairment of the brain (â€Å"Dyslexia,† n. d. ). In fact, a number clever and gifted people are suffering from dyslexia (â€Å"Dyslexia,† n. d. ).In the United States, the condition is classified as a â€Å"specific learning disability† or as a â€Å"specific reading disability† by the related federal legal statutes that has special education in its scope (Allington, 2006) However, the main idea o f all these explanations comprises the indeterminable hardships encountered by a dyslexic individual when it comes to reading. Moreover, there is no consensus with regard to the definition of the illness that causes the stakeholders confusion that renders them not to use the term (Allington, 2006).Behavioral Management and Techniques in Autism There are three behavioral management and techniques used by the occupational Therapist in able to develop and assist their clients that are suffering from Autism. These are all aimed at a holistic approach to treating the symptoms and addressing the difficulties that come with it. The three techniques are discussed in the next section. Educational/behavioral interventions Occupational Therapists use well reliable and thorough skill-oriented exercises in able to help their client enhance their language and social capabilities.Counseling the relatives and the family of the their client is better a technique to assist the entire clan deal with t he specific obstacles and difficulties in taking care of the autistic client (NINDS, 2006). Medications Occupational therapist could as well seek for the help of a doctor. A medical doctor usually recommends an antidepressant prescription in able to deal with the symptoms of a) â€Å"anxiety,† b) â€Å"depression,† or â€Å"obsessive-compulsive disorder† (NINDS, 2006). In a sense, these Anti-psychotic medicines are helpful to lessen the burden brought about by the symptoms of behavioral disabilities (NINDS, 2006).Attacks, on the other hand, can be prevented with the administration of variety of doses anticonvulsant medicines (NINDS, 2006). Prescription of stimulant drug that is specifically given for the children suffering from the attention deficit disorder or better known as ADD is an effective technique used by the Occupational Therapists to cut down the incident impulsivity and hyperactivity (NINDS, 2006). Other therapies Controversies abound the therapies t hat are formulated to treat autistic children (NINDS, 2006).This has made the use such be attached with caution before these are adopted by the parents or guardians (NINDS, 2006). Furthermore, an insignificant number of these are backed up with thorough scientific research (NINDS, 2006). Writing for the developmentally disabled individual Therapeutic Sessions for autism With the aim of teaching the developmentally challenged person it is important to have focus and patience together with appropriate learning strategies that will help the disabled individual in writing and learning process.Likewise, it is necessary to conduct follow up sessions with the therapist and at home with the help of the parents and other relatives. Behavioral Management and Techniques in Dyslexia According to website article, a recent game was developed with the purpose of helping children and other individuals cope with the difficulty they suffer from reading (Briggs, 2001). In the study, a group of seven-y ear-old children served as the respondents of the study and this resulted to a positive outcome for the research on reading difficulties (Briggs, 2001).The game included activities that require the respondents to match certain shapes to particular sounds (Briggs, 2001). They are asked to press a space bar after a series of sequences and then they will be greeted with a smile (Briggs, 2001). This resulted in higher rates of accuracy and an increase in the speed of reading for the 24 children who are diagnosed to have dyslexia (Briggs, 2001). Conclusion The role of the occupational therapist is a four-fold task. This is aimed towards uplifting the condition of the client.It is the aim of the occupational therapist is to be able to address the needs of the client and the chance to fulfill their responsibilities. There are different ways by which the therapist could help the clients in making their lives better through these techniques. It has become a better way of making people live a fulfilling life. These are different techniques of writing such as video games. References A Definition of Occupational Therapy. (n. d. ). Retrieved July 5, 2008, from http://steinhardt. nyu. edu/ot/definitionAllington, R. (2006). â€Å"Dyslexia. † In Microsoft ® Student 2007 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation. Briggs, H. (2001). Computer game helps dyslexics. Retrieved July 05, 2008, from http://www. dyslexia-teacher. com/t113. html. Dyslexia. (n. d. ). Retrieved July 5, 2008, from http://kidshealth. org/kid/health_problems/learning_problem/dyslexia. html National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [NINDS]. (2006). Autism Fact Sheet. Retrieved July 5, 2008, from http://www. ninds. nih. gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism. htm

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Essay about elections and democracy - 1559 Words

QUESTION 1; 1. Do you think elections can be a good measure of democracy? Discuss this statement in relation to elections recently held in African countries you are familiar with. INTRODUCTION The year 2011 experienced serious levels of political activities in Africa such as political upheavals, middle-east uprisings and elections in many countries. Most Islamic nations rose against their long-ruling leaders, hence saw the ousted of Egyptian Hosni Mubarak and the killing of Muamar Gaddafi after a six-month war between the Gaddafi loyalists and the anti-Gadhafi fighters assisted by NATO. However, while this was taking place, other countries like Zambia, Congo DR, Nigeria, Liberia were also exercising their obligation of†¦show more content†¦DISCUSSION From the understanding of liberty and freedoms, the government must be erected by the participation of very free people not under coercion. It implies that the citizens must have a free will to choose leaders of their choice and be able to have freedom of expression within the given framework. Thus, elections become a very important voice for citizens to select their leaders as that is how they participate in the process of making decisions .However, there is more to democracy than just holding elections and electioneering. There are many other factors to consider to complete democracy than just holding an election Elections today, which signify democracy, must be judged by the conformity to standard norms that constitute free and fair elections. A free election is based on the presumption that fundamental human rights and freedoms are respected. These would include freedom of assembly, association, expression, and information. In addition, freedom would include freedom from violence, intimidation and coercion, freedom to access the polling stations by both voters and monitors, and freedom to make choices without fear of repercussions.But in Zambia,prior to elections,there was a lot of intimidation by the ruling MMD by brutalising the opposition,corrupting the youths with beer to cause confusion in a way of campaigning.So there was coecion before election as opponents were not ready to frely make their own decisions over who to vote for. In anotherShow MoreRelatedA False Democracy : The Presidential Election1434 Words   |  6 Pages A False Democracy In the 2016 presidential election, over ninety million eligible American citizens abstained from voting. Of course many citizens could have been busy that day, or forgot, or even falsely feel that voting is futile. All of these free non voters take their freedom for granted as upwards of two million convicted felons’ votes are stolen by the government because of their criminal behavior. Each of the fifty states in the U.S. recognize numerous specific and confusing laws on whetherRead MoreThe Democracy in United States Elections1908 Words   |  8 PagesAre United States elections democratic? Democracy a universally recognized phenomenon refers to a government deriving its power from the people and being answerable to them (Fox 2008). President Abraham Lincoln (Gettysburg Address, 1863) said about democracy a government of the people, by the people, and for the people, shall not vanish from this earth ‘ (Fox 2008). The foundations of democracy in America are found within, â€Å"The Declaration of Independence of 1776† and â€Å"The Constitution ofRead MoreAre Free Elections Necessary to Have a Democracy?1997 Words   |  8 Pages It is important to understand the concept of democratization to examine newly developed democracies more critically and to have a better understanding of the contemporary politics around the world. Since many countries consider themselves as democracies, there needs to be a scale that represents the shared value and aspiration of democracy to evaluate these countries in a critical and objective manner to determine the democra tic performance of these governments. The region this essay will be focusingRead MoreDemocracy, the Electoral College and Other Methods of Election681 Words   |  3 Pagesaround the world believe that the United States, with its political and justice systems, is the strongest democracy in the world. However, the United States of America possesses many defects in its political system. Many Americans also believe that the United States of America is the most solid democracy today. However, America’s election system contradicts the ideas of a role-model democracy. American citizens elect the President of the United States indirectly through the Electoral College. SomeRead MoreA Free Fair Election Is The Keystone Of Every Democracy1429 Words   |  6 PagesA free and fair election is the keystone of every democracy. It is essential for a peaceful transfer of power. The elected leaders shape the future of the society.   Therefore, elections empower the ordinary citizens. Through elections, the citizens are able to influence the policies which made by the government, and thus, their future. The US has been in the forefront in democracy since the year 1788 when the Constitution was ratified. However, the electoral tradition was established during the colonialRead MoreThe Elections Is A Key Aspect Of Australia s Democracy Essay1859 Words   |  8 PagesProviding each citizen with the right to vote in periodic elections is a key aspect of Australia’s democracy. Voting acts as a mean for citizens to contribute to the government, by choosing who is elected. Australia was progressive in promoting democracy, as the country’s early electoral systems implemented compulsory voting, preferential voting and it gave women the right to vote. However, a history of malapportionment of electoral districts has prevented true voter equality from being reached.Read MoreIs The Uk Really A Democracy? Essay1356 Words   |  6 PagesIS THE UK REALLY A DEMOCRACY? A democracy, according to Abraham Lincoln, is a government of the people, by the people and for the people. The word democracy comes from the Greek word demos which means â€Å"people and kratia, which means rule ( ). A democracy is a system where the people have a little of control over the government in some specific important processes like voting in elections and decision making. In a democracy, the majority rule and minorityRead MoreDemocracy As A Best Solution, And Underlying Capitalist Forces1490 Words   |  6 PagesDemocracy has morphed in the face of time due to exterior forces which in turn have impacted the understanding of what democracy in action should look like. Technology, education, religious decay and rise, and many other facets of modern life have overwhelmed the understanding of what democracy is. Simply engaging with the concept of democracy is in itself an acceptance of values and assumptions about what governments, and m any times economies, should look like. But this paper hardly allows for alternativeRead MoreIndian Democracy1376 Words   |  6 Pages aptly defined democracy as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States of America, aptly defined democracy as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. This definition clearly underlines the basic tenet that, in this- form of government, people are supreme. The ultimate power is in their hands and they exercise it in the form of electing their representatives at the time of elections. In modern timesRead MoreBelieving in Democracy for Nepal994 Words   |  4 PagesToday everyone believes in democracy in Nepal and experience a new era of democracy because after a long time Nepal got democracy. The process of democratic promotion in Nepal is very complex. In political and social term Nepal travelled a very long way in the last sixty years. In 1947 when India and Pakistan independent, Nepal was ruled by the autocratic Rana regime. In 1951 Nepal first time attained democracy through an armed revolution against the Rana regime. Then King Mahendra introduced party

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

The Honest to Goodness Truth on Good Creative Essay Topics

The Honest to Goodness Truth on Good Creative Essay Topics At precisely the same time, it's a terrific persuasive essay idea. It is preferable to search online since it will save yourself a plenty of time. While such freedom provides you a possiblity to choose what you find interesting, there's also the risk you can stray from the topic or your subject of analysis could be too wide. A superb start is a guarantee of succeeding. Today, you can request skilled support and hire a specialist who's ready to increase your draft, offer you higher excellent essay edit service, or even finish your creative essay for your benefit. In any case, it doesn't matter the degree of education of your essay. Definition essay can help to locate another meaning for things from years past thus we could make our future better. If you would like to create a descriptive essay about your own personal experience, it might be unusual and specific. The Key to Successful Good Creative Essay Topics Ins piration to make your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn't challenging to discover. There are many skilled essay writers that may cope at any essay in no moment. You don't need to find super technical with legal argumentative essays, but remember to do your homework on what the recent laws about your preferred topic actually say. Among the various types of essay, there's a definition essay that could appear to be among the most simple assignments. For example, you will probably learn to choose or make a best essay topic. An individual can even give thorough examples to produce the essay impression strong. Be sure that your essay is very clear and concise. It's also advisable to read your essay after you are finished. Good Creative Essay Topics - the Conspiracy The majority of people have written an essay. Other times, you'll be given the freedom to produce informative and creative topics. Other folks argue it doesn't exist whatsoever. Good Creative Essay Topics Help! Writing a good creative essay demands a whole lot of skill, talent, and diligence. How well you write will be contingent on the skills you're taught and more to the point, the skills you practice as a way to get speed and knowledge. In the same way as any other essay, a definition one has its peculiarities along with content requirements that should be met to be successful in the writing. If you lack the time or skills required to finish your assignmen t the manner in which you want, then you have to get in touch with us and pay to compose an essay. Essentially, you will provide your opinion on a word. It's important to always offer a conventional definition of your subject in at the start of the definition essay, even if your definitions vary from the normal meaning. In the initial one, talk about the origin of the word and the way it was used previously. Then it's possible to compare the word with different terms that are very similar to your topic. The Death of Good Creative Essay Topics Good creative essays give students an opportunity to express their opinion in a secure environment. The very first step is where a large number of students become stuck. Some students utilize the very first idea that arrives in their head and work on it, but the outcome isn't successful. Students who find they lack the skills necessary to research and formulate decent essay topic ideas should look at getting assistance from our expert s. If you're looking for college essay examples, here's a great one below. Students are accustomed to the simple fact which their professors give them with the assignment's topic. For instance, you can select a topic for elementary, middle, or higher school. There are several persuasive essay topics to select from to finish your high school or college assignment. The Appeal of Good Creative Essay Topics As you compose the essay, make certain that you've got an introduction that captures the interest of a reader. The reader ought to take the author's side by the close of the reading. It's possible for you to produce a more original bit of writing. Reach to us when you desire a good example of creative writing. Evaluating creative writing topics is among the procedures that ensure you compose a fantastic paper. Another good idea is to receive some totally free essay examples of different kinds and on various subjects to find a general idea of the way in which a prosperous debatable paper looks. The aim of an important essay is to appraise information, theories or situations. If you would like excellent paper essay examples, reach out to us here today and we are going to do our very best to supply you with the most suitable support. Speaking about something you understand well makes it a lot easier and enjoyable! When you choose the topic which suits you most, remember the reason you write your essay, concentrate on the main details to tell about in your text and don't neglect the value of senses and feelings in your essay. Select a distinctive topic that others may not think of, and whatever you select, make sure that you know a lot about it! When you're picking your topic, remember that it's much simpler to write about something which you presently have interest ineven in case you don't know a great deal about it. What You Don't Know About Good Creative Essay Topics Remember your essay shouldn't be a string of jokes, it's a narrative it needs to have a start, middle and the end. Consider what you want to explore and define. So, the ideal start would be to interpret this kind of assignment for a definition essay to be able to define and understand its features that have to be preserved. Good Creative Essay Topics - Is it a Scam? Writing and essay prompts are a good learning tool to assist you concentrate on a specific subject or topic and practice writing on such topic utilizing appropriate sentence structure and development. When picking a topic for an important essay make certain you take a topic you're able to manage. Argumentative essay topics are so important since they are debatableand it's important to at all times be critically considering the world around us. Actually, as well as getting a sample or help with only the subject, you can order an original custom made paper from our qualified experts. The main aim of topic choice for a proposal essay is to show the idea can be put into place in practice. A ssuming you have some idea on the overall area you want to deal with in your essay, the upcoming crucial step is choosing listing down anything you know on the matter. At the exact same time, detecting cause and effect relationships isn't that easy in regards to the selection of an excellent cause and effect essay topic.

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Anorexia Nervosa - 1947 Words

Voltaire once said, â€Å"Nothing would be more tiresome than eating and drinking if God had not made them a pleasure as well as a necessity.† This quote makes me remember that as much pleasure as food may bring us, we should never forget that we need it to survive. I guess most of us don’t, but once again, I remembered there are some people who do. If we were to look the world as a whole, we would realize that from every 100 teenage girls, 1 to 5 suffers from Anorexia(EDV). As defined by the National Eating Disorders Association, â€Å"Anorexia Nervosa is a serious, potentially life-threatening eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and excessive weight loss.† (NEDA). The term â€Å"Anorexia Nervosa† literally means â€Å"neurotic loss of†¦show more content†¦One of the most examined cases, which serves as a tool to prove the existence of Holy Anorexia is Catherine Benincassa, a woman of the fourteenth century. Somewhat between 1373 and 1374, she replied in a letter to a priest that begged her to eat, I say to you that many times, when I did what I could, then I look[ed] into myself to understand my infirmity [†¦] I do not know what other remedy to try, [†¦] I beg you that you beseech that highest eternal Truth to grant me the grace of allowing me to take food.† (Bell) Further on she refers to eating as a way to â€Å"live like other creatures†(Bell). It is evident that she was unable to control h erself and to stop her starvation. In the legenda (a recompilation of her life) written by her confessor, it is shown that later on, she refused to eat anything at all and eventually died from starvation. The close examination of Catherine’s case, among many others, proves that Anorexia exists since the Middle Ages, and it is not a modern illness. Beauty was considered something completely different back then, and the media was nonexistent. So neither beauty nor the media can be contemplated as the cause of Anorexia Nervosa. They surely help perpetuate this illness, though, because the media controls what goes in the minds of people since a very young age, and spreads the idea of losing weight faster than it could have ever been done before. It sells a lot of dissatisfaction, as stated by Andrea Ganitsky, and leads girlsShow MoreRelatedEssay on Anorexia Nervosa 1763 Words   |  8 PagesDavis 1 Anorexia nervosa is defined as a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight, in addition to a disturbance in perception of body shape and weight( DSM-IV-TR, 2000). In this paper we will examine Carolyn Costin’s battle with anorexia nervosa from a biopsychosocial perspective and what reinforced her disorder. This will be followed by diagnostically using the DSM-IV-TR in Carolyn’s case and conceptually using the sociocultural dimension. The implications for both Carolyn,Read MoreUnderstanding Anorexia Nervosa1008 Words   |  5 PagesAnorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder, with more than 10% of those that suffer from it will die. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that is categorized by severe food restriction, excessive exercise and body dysmorphia, which leads those that suffer from it to believe that they are overweight. Anorexia nervosa is commonly misunderstood by the general public. Research has disproved many of the previous thoughts about anorexia nervosa. According to the scientificRead MoreAnorexia Nervosa Essay1392 Words   |  6 PagesAnorexia Nervosa I have chosen to study about Anorexia Nervosa because I would like to know more about this topic and why people do it to themselves. I wonder why young people in particular feel that they need to be so thin. In this assignment I would like to study mainly on why teenage girls feel so conscious about their bodies, what they feel about the way that women are portrayed in the media and the effects of Anorexia Nervosa. To be able to cover thisRead More Anorexia Nervosa Essay1568 Words   |  7 Pages Anorexia nervosa is a life threatening eating disorder defined by a refusal to maintain fifteen percent of a normal body weight through self-starvation (NAMI 1). Ninety-five percent of anorexics are women between the ages of twelve and eighteen, however, â€Å"†¦in the past twenty years, this disorder has become a growing threat to high school and college students†(Maloney and Kranz 60). Anorexia produces a multitude of symptoms, and if not treated, anorexia can lead to permanent physical damage or deathRead MoreAnorexia Nervosa Essay2312 Words   |  10 PagesAnorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder that is most prevalent in adolescent girls and young women. It is distinguished by the loss of at least 15% of the expected body weight (Long). The disease is characterized by the obsessive fear of gaining weight; through this fear, the person engages in dangerous dieting habits that prevent weight gain. According to statistics in 2011 anorexia is categorized as the third most common chronic disease among adolescents, in addition, eating disorders also haveRead MoreAnorexia Nervosa Essay1758 Words   |  8 Pagesare either overweight or just not good enough. With implying that it might result in some type of eating disorder, such as anorexia nervosa. This obsession of being thin has rapidly increased over the years and is still accelerating.(DSM) This type of disorder, mainly appearing in females has over five million cases and one million in males.(family dr) Most kids with anorexia are usually perfectionist, or the kids who do extremely well in school and focus on pleasing others. (guide) Most people denyingRead MoreThe Trauma Of Anorexia Nervosa953 Words   |  4 PagesThe trauma of anorexia Let’s start saying that in my family two of them had or still have anorexia: my cousin and my aunt. It has been a pain in the heart. For years, I was afraid of the magnitude of this mental disorder. Anyway, this disorder is something that intrigued me for a long time, so I am going to try to transmit the pain it can release this disorder to the family and mainly to the person who actually has it. The mental disorder, called: anorexia nervosa, is a disorder characterized byRead MoreBackground History of Anorexia Nervosa1452 Words   |  6 PagesHISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ANOREXIA NERVOSA Anorexia nervosa’s (AN) first descriptions began during the twelfth and thirteenth century with the historical Saint Catherine of Siena (Deans, 2011). It is related to participating in religious functions and medieval practices of self-starvation (Deans, 2011). Furthermore, the death of popular singer, Karen Carpenter in 1983 created the societal awareness about the effect of anorexia nervosa and become widely known at the end of the twentieth century (RaderRead More Anorexia Nervosa Essay examples657 Words   |  3 Pages Anorexia Nervosa is characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimal normal body weight. A disturbance in perception of body shape and weight is an essential feature of anorexia nervosa. It appears to be far more present in industrialized societies, in which there is an abundance amount of food and in which being considered attractive is linked to being thin. The disorder is most common in countries like the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia and Japa n. More than 95% of cases of anorexia nervosaRead MoreAnorexia Nervosa And Bulimia Nervosa1452 Words   |  6 Pagestwo major types of eating disorders are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. One of the descriptions of anorexia nervosa was during the 12th and 13th centuries. A woman, Saint Catherine of Siena, ceased her intake of food for a spiritual denial of herself. During the 16th century people who had self-discipline and practiced abstention were suspected to be witches and were burned at the stake. In the 17th century all the way through the 19th century anorexia was perceived to be an endocrine disorder

Monday, December 9, 2019

Discrete Time Signal Processing Third Edition

Question: Describe about the Discrete Time Signal Processing Third Edition? Answer: Define Phase: The call center was trying to effective solutions to enhance their business growth through application of six sigma principles. However, the management used DMAIC (Define, measure, analyze, improvement and control) methodology to resolve their problems. According to Al Aomar, (2012) use of DMAIC methodology can generate useful output when an existing process is going to be improved. In this case, call center management focused on modifying its current service delivery process through DMAIC methodology. Albeanu et al., (2010) opined that define phase of DMAIC methodology is not only important for determining project objectives; it is also useful to identify project deliverables to client. Before starting this six-sigma project, the management completed tasks related to identification of key drivers for higher customer satisfaction. Main tasks of define phase include- specifying the targets by using a project charter, identifying deliverables of this project at different stages, identification of resources required in this project and mapping the final process (Ismyrlis and Moschidis, 2013). Customers show less tendency of preferring one particular organization if competition is high ((Johannesson, 2011).While conducting market analysis before commencement of this project, management realized that other organizations of ITES (Information Technology Enabled Services) are also providing services to customers at the same cost. It indicates that customers can choose one organization from many options. It is making customer retention process more difficult. Findings of the market analysis indicate that the business growth of this company is average with respect to other organizations. Although customer satisfaction is one of the most influencing factors business growth, other factors such as operating costs and delivery time of services also impact on the growth significantly (Nave, 2015).Pre project data analysis reflects that the best performing organizations in market spend less on each call. Analysis also reflects that cost to each call depends on the wait time for customers, number of call transfers to other staffs and time spent on a call to answer questions of customers. Primary goals of the current six-sigma project are decided on basis of these findings. These goals include reduction of average cost of calls by reducing wait time and number of call transfers. The tasks in define phase are as follows: Project charter development Analyzing customer requirements Full process plan development Project Charter: Project Information Project Name Business growth enhancement for call-center Chartered date Sponsoring organization 1-800 We Answer Project start date Revision Number n/a Target Completion date Team Sponsors Project sponsor Contact Number Project Black Belt Contact Number Project Green Belt Contact Number Additional Team members Name Role Contact Principle Stakeholders Name Role Contact 1-800 We answer Main Client 1-212-868-1121 Principle objective of the project is increasing business growth for the call center. It will be achieved by finding solutions for reducing operational cost for a call. The project also aims at finding solutions to reduce wait time, number of call transfers and service delivery time. Project Goals: There are several organizations in ITES industry which offer customers with different services at lower cost. As several options are available in ITES market it is always difficult to retain existing customers. Findings of market analysis reveal that profitability in ITES market does not depend only on customer satisfaction. Operating cost of an organization also impacts on the net revenue. Operating cost for the organization is already higher than other organization in reducing continuously. As service delivery time is also higher than best-performing organizations, the company is facing difficulties to retain its existing customers. High delivery time is also restricting current call-center to attracts new customers. Operating cost and service quality requires to be increased to acquire better position in market. It also indicates that the organization needs to increase their customer satisfaction level for enhancing profitability. Process problem: Scope of the project: Scopes of the projects are as follows: Conducting a detailed market analysis through benchmarking technique and indentifying the position of the organization by comparing its performance with other organizations in same field. Getting information from existing customers on their view regarding satisfactory services. It can be conducted by arranging telephonic interviews among customers. COPIS (Supplier, input, process, output, and customers) can be developed to document detailed information on clients. Identification of available resources which needs to be utilized in more effective way to attain goal of the project and finding solutions to optimize usefulness of existing resources. Identification of new resources which can be required to enhance business performance. Process importance: As competition is high in ITES industry, We-answer requires enhancing their profit to avoid any degradation in their current market position. As several organizations are providing IT services to customers, it is important to reduce operating cost for attaining competitive advantages. However, the organization also requires reducing their operating cost to increase profitability. Other organizations in the same industry successfully reduced their operating costs and thus earned higher profit. Current condition of this industry clearly reflects that We-answer needs to stop increase in operating cost immediately to avoid further degradation. It also indicates that the organization also requires reducing cost to per call for earning more profit. However, for attaining long term business growth only reduction in operational costs is not sufficient. The organization also needs to increase its customer base while retaining existing clients. It reflects that the improvement in service quali ty is one of the important factors for business growth. Authorized resources: Project Sponsor-Call center management Management of the call-center is responsible for ensuring that their staffs are co-operating with six-sigma team. They are also responsible for providing all supports and resources to six-sigma team whenever required. Stakeholder-Six sigma team Members of this team are responsible for ensuring that the current project is successfully executed and all deliverables f this project are able to bring high ROI(Return On Investment) for the company. Project schedule: ID Task Duration 1 Definition Phase 15 days 2 Data collection from neutral source 4 days 3 Data analysis 2 days 4 Informing call-center management about the findings 0.5 day 5 Conducting telephonic interviews among customers 3 days 6 Gathering data collected from customers and development of COPIS table 1 day 7 Identification of available resources required in this project 0.5 day 8 Team development 1 day 9 Consulting with call-center management regarding budget 0.5 day 10 Deciding schedule for project 1 day 11 Drafting and finalizing charter for project 0.5 day 12 Developing project plan 1 day 13 Process mapping 3 day 14 Identification of gaps and finding solutions 1 day 15 Meeting with call center management 1 day 16 Measure phase 5 days 17 Collecting data 3 days 18 Analyzing data 2 days 19 Improvement Phase 10 days 20 Prioritizing issues 2 days 21 Developing solutions 5 days 22 Reviewing solutions with management 1 day 23 Developing strategy implementation plan 2 days 24 Control phase 2 days Morgan and Brenig-Jones (2012) opined that phases in DMAIC approach are dependent on each other and outputs of every phase are important as these are used in next phase also. Activities in the measurement phase will be conducted on basis of the output of obtained in definition phase (Antony and Kumar, 2012). The management applied benchmarking approach to find their position in market. Use of benchmarking approach enables an organization to compare their performance with others (Jardim, 2013). Average costs per calls for different organizations in the industry are listed below: Figure 1: Comparison between costs per calls of different call centers Analyzing requirements: According to Zhu, Mao and Li, (2013) use of benchmarking techniques not only enables an organization to locate them in market; it is also useful for identification of key drivers for business growth (Barone et al., 2014). In this phase A COPIS chart is also developed on basis of the telephonic interviews conducted among customers. Customer Output Process Inputs Suppliers Clients System engaged Automatic answering of calls (Automated process) Telephone connection Call switching infrastructure Phone service providers and IT staffs Clients Information is collected in system Collecting queries (manual) Staffs Infrastructure to manage call Management and IT staffs Clients Decision regarding responses Evaluating queries and determining whether it can be answered (manual process) Database Trained staffs IT Staffs and HR department Clients Providing solution Available solutions collected Successful Delivery of collected solution Database IT staffs Clients Transferring query to higher level Transferring calls if it cannot be resolved by lower staffs (manual process) Higher level staffs HR team Management of call center Recording customer details and successful resolution Record data regarding call Collecting feedback from customers IT staffs and call center management Table 1: COPIS chart for call center As stated by Yu and Ueng, (2012) development of COPIS chart is not only useful to resources required for each process, but it also can be used to predict the problems encountered during execution of the process. COPIS chart analysis is useful for development of process map (Kosina, 2013).In this project a process map is developed during definition phase to identify the problems that may be encountered by a caller. Figure 2: Process map for answering call in call center Key findings: Comparison on average costs per call for different call centers indicates that the cost for each call is higher than average performing organizations. Analysis of the process map developed in this phase indicates that a customer may need to wait if the answering process is engaged. Delay in service delivery may also occur if the solution is not available to lower level staff. Delay in query processing can reduce customer satisfaction. On other hand, if the customer does not get any solution from staffs, satisfaction level also decreases. On basis of process map analysis it is evident that increase in service delivery time of the organization is affecting the customer satisfaction level thus reducing net profit of organization. Measure and analysis: In measurement phase of six sigma project, key findings of previous phase are used to determine factors which are affecting business growth of the organization (Yamamoto, Abraham and Malatestinic, 2010).On basis of pervious findings, it is evident that increased cost per call and service delivery time is affecting the revenue. However, the organization also needs to increase availability of solutions so that the queries presented by customers can be resolved on the first call. According to Kubiak, (2012) ease of information access enhances business growth. In the measuring phase, at first the reasons behind degradation of key business performance parameters are identified (Besseris, 2011) .Six sigma team aims to find solution for the problems identified in definition phase. In this phase, the team also determines standard values of key parameters which will be useful for upgrading market position. Tasks of this stage are listed as follows: Identification of supporting factors and Data collection plan: Data collection is one of the important tasks of measurement and analysis phase (Cano et al., 2012). Voehl (2013) suggested as major business performance parameters are influenced by different factors, inappropriate determination of these supporting factors often generate erroneous result. In this task factors influencing key parameters will be identified. Standardizing business performance measurement parameters and comparing collected data with standards: In this phase, collected data will be compared with standardized values to identify the root causes behind variation in business performance. Outputs of measurement process will be used to compare the current performance of business with standardized performance (de Mast and Lokkerbol, 2012). It is also effective for prioritizing the areas which require to be improved. Identification of supporting factors and Data collection plan: The current phase deals with measurement of two important business performance parameters-customer satisfaction and call per cost. Determining accurate knowledge on customer satisfaction level is difficult as it is dependent on several other parameters also (Neves and Nakhai, 2011).Here factors influencing customer satisfaction and cost per call are determined. Factors influencing customer satisfaction: Figure 3: Factors influencing customer satisfaction in call center Figure 3 describes the factors which are influencing customer satisfaction level of the call center. Taghizadegan (2013) stated that service delivery time is one of the most important factors which impact on customer satisfaction. However service delivery time depends on performance of staffs and accessibility of resources. According to Nicoletti (2013) organizations which emphasize more on regular training of staffs, get the benefit of increased business growth. On other hand, performance of an employee does not depend on quality of training provided by organization, experience in a particular task also influences the expertise in that field (Tan, 2015) .From the above figure, it is evident that in this particular call center, time required for each call depends on the delivery of service medium. Use of web-based services such as E-mails reduces time span for a call. As selection of service delivery medium depends on customers preferences, total time span can become uncontrollable i n some cases. Factors influencing call per cost: Figure 4: Factors influencing call per cost Although availability of skilled employees is essential to reduce operating cost, availability of resources is also equally important for the purpose (Stephen, 2015).If time to access required resources increase, operating cost also increases (Kumar and Naidu, 2011).Figure 4 reflects if recovery time of information from databases increase, cost of each call will also increase. However, the cost also depends on nature of call. Data collection plan: The project team identified some areas of business activities for data collection. The team also decided process how data will be collected. Parameters Data collection plan and actions Customer satisfaction level Conducting survey by telephonic interviews, Recording customer feedback after each query Analyzing the survey records to track current trends in market Cost per call Recording the total time to answer a call Cost to find the solution Cost for calling back the customer Time required for providing solution Total number of days required to satisfy the customer is the problem was not resolved on first call Service delivery time Time required to start a communication (It will be tracked automatically by existing system) Waiting time Of customers Total time the customers required to wait if the system was engaged (It will also be tracked automatically) Number of transfers Total number of call transfer to higher authority (tracked automatically) Table 2: Data collection plan Table 2 shows a collection plan which will be used to gather data. Proper development of data collection plan increases chance of getting accurate information (Lertwattanapongchai and Swierczek, 2014).In this plan, data regarding customer satisfaction level is given the most prioritized. Gathering information on customer satisfaction level is useful for identifying drawbacks in current system and it also helps an organization to develop its future business strategies (Srinivasan et al., 2014).However, the data regarding customer feedback can be collected by conducting industry survey (Maleyeff et al.,2012). Feedbacks of customers can also be collected through telephonic interviews (Mandelbaum, 2012). Apart from these, a customer can be requested to give feedback whenever the call center is providing service. Staffs of the cal center can be engaged for collecting feedbacks from customers and conducting telephonic interviews. Cost per call is one of the most influencing factors for net revenue of a call center. According to (Snee, 2010) measures taken to reduce operating cost can be more effective if the market expansion strategies are difficult to be implemented. Organizations operating in highly competitive market often shows the tendency to control operating cost for increasing revenue instead of implementing new market development strategies (Reosekar and Pohekar, 2014) .Cost per call for the call center can be measured in three stages. The total cost of a call not only depends on total time required to answer it, but it is also dependent on process of searching solution from databases. Cost for answering each call also depends on number of call transfers to higher authority. Apart from this, call center management needs to record details of each call and also requires updating database after communicating with a client. All these processes increase total cost of each call. Sometimes, staffs of the or ganization fail to provide satisfactory answer to a client. In such cases, staffs call the client back and it affects operational cost of organization. The total cost required to answer a call will be calculated by system. Customer satisfaction depends significantly on the time required to deliver a service (Shaffie and Shahbazi, 2012). In this project, measurement on total time required to satisfy a customer is important. If the query is not resolved on first call, then the total number of days will be counted to measure delay in response. In case of call centers, prompt answer to the first call increases loyalty of customers to a particular organization (Singh et al., 2010). Tasks in measurement and analysis phase of this project also include measurement of wait time. If a call is transferred to higher level for several times, wait time increases and thus customers satisfaction level decreases significantly. So the number of call transfers will also be recorded automatically by system to identify queries which are difficult to answer at this stage. Standardizing performance criteria: Once data on major performance parameters are collected, next tasks of measurement phase deal with deciding standards for performance parameters Firka, (2010). Data standardization is important to develop improvement actions (Mitreva et al., 2014). The current and standardized values of some parameters are listed below: Performance criteria Standardized parameters Current position Percentage of Satisfied customers after a call 85% 70-75% Cost for responding a call $30 $40 Percentage of transferred call 5% 10% Average Wait time 5-6 minutes Time required for first response of a call 6-7 minutes Table 3: Standardized performance parameters and current position Table 3 shows data for standardized performance criteria and current position of this call center. Ramly (2012) suggested that, organizations should set targets for future business development on basis of analysis made on its strengths and weaknesses. However, tendency of management to take risks is important for rapid business growth (Ping Yi et al., 2012). The six sigma team also developed the target values for key performance parameters according to existing infrastructure of an organization (Morgan and Brenig-Jones, 2012). In case of performance standardization also, attaining customer satisfaction is given the most importance. Currently, services of the organization able to satisfy only 70-75% customers. Project team set target to increase number of satisfied customers up to 85%. Analysis and key findings: On basis of the tasks conducted in the second phase it is revealed that the current supporting cost for each call of this call center are much higher than expected cost. So the project tem immediately find solutions to reduce operating cost. Number of call transfers is also higher than the expected value. As it increases wait time for customers, loyalty of customers reduces with increase in number of call transfer. Improvement phase: According to Parast (2015) determining the effects of internal and external factors on revenue is important in improvement phase, as these findings are mandatory for deciding control actions. This phase of the project deals with determining solutions for the problems addressed in previous phases (Gershon and Rajashekharaiah, 2013). In this phase, six-sigma team recorded key reasons for degradation in business growth of the call center and also evaluated their impact on business performance. Tasks which are conducted in improvement phase are as follows: Prioritization of remedial measures: At this stage, impacts of all business issues are recorded and evaluated. Remedial measures for these issues are also developed at this stage. However, these strategies will be implemented according to their priority. All business issues should be solved according to their priority for getting better result (Neves and Nakhai, 2011). Developing plan for improvement strategy implementation: Tasks in improvement stage include remedial strategy development plan for the call center. Prioritization of remedial measures: On basis of analysis made in previous stages, issues affecting call center performance are listed according to their priority. Reducing support cost for each call: Support cost for this call center is higher than most of other organizations in market. It indicates that the organization requires reducing support cost for increasing profit. Reducing number of call transfer: Analysis of collected data shows that staffs have a tendency of transferring calls to higher level. It increases wait time, reduces customer satisfaction and also increases cost of each call. Staff training and increasing availability of information is required to solve this problem. Reducing wait time: Often customers have to wait for a long time to get responses and it reduces chances of returning back to this call center. Main reasons for this problems are- less availability of staffs and improper scheduling of work. Plan for improvement strategy implementation: Improvement strategies are implemented in different stages according to their importance in business (Guo and Zhu, 2014). Implementation plan for these strategies are shown below. Target Strategies Reducing support cost Implementing web based services Training staffs to reduce call transfer and number of call backs Reducing Number of call transfer Increasing availability of right information Staff training Reducing wait time Increasing number of staffs Changing work schedule Table 4: Remedial strategy implementation plan Control phase: In Six sigma process control actions are taken for a period (Plenert, 2012).Control actions for modified processes are being taken continuously (Gygi et al., 2013). Data regarding customer satisfaction, support cost, and service delivery time are recorded regularly and data are compared with standard .Management is taking actions to upgrade the database. The organization is hiring new employees. Trainings are arranged for existing employees. Conclusion: Outcomes of this project reflect that improvement strategies are effective to solve problems faced by the organization. Although the call center required strategies which will result immediate effect on business growth, these steps can effectively increase business growth in future also. References Al Aomar, R. (2012). A lean construction framework with Six Sigma rating. Lean Six Sigma Journal, 3(4), pp.299-314. Albeanu, M., Hunter, I. and Radford, J. (2010). Six Sigma in HR transformation. Farnham, England: Gower Pub. Antony, J. and Kumar, M. (2012). Lean and Six Sigma Methodologies in NHS Scotland: An Empirical Study and Directions for Future Research. QIP Journal, 16(2). Barone, S., Doverholt, T., Errore, A. and Lombardo, A. (2014). Six Sigma in small- and medium-sized enterprises: a Black Belt project in the Swedish steel industry. International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage, 8(2), p.125. Besseris, G. (2011). Applying the DOE toolkit on a Lean and Green Six Sigma Maritime Operation Improvement Project. Lean Six Sigma Journal, 2(3), pp.270-284. 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Sunday, December 1, 2019

The American Civil War Essays (2451 words) - American Civil War

The American Civil War The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the events surrounding the end of the American Civil War. This war was a war of epic proportion. Never before and not since have so many Americans died in battle. The American Civil War was truly tragic in terms of human life. In this document, I will speak mainly around those involved on the battlefield in the closing days of the conflict. Also, reference will be made to the leading men behind the Union and Confederate forces. The war was beginning to end by January of 1865. By then, Federal (Federal was another name given to the Union Army) armies were spread throughout the Confederacy and the Confederate Army had shrunk extremely in size. In the year before, the North had lost an enormous amount of lives, but had more than enough to lose in comparison to the South. General Grant became known as the "Butcher" (Grant, Ulysses S., Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant, New York: Charles L. Webster & Co.,1894) and many wanted to see him removed. But Lincoln stood firm with his General, and the war continued. This paper will follow the happenings and events between the winter of 1864-65 and the surrender of The Confederate States of America. All of this will most certainly illustrate that April 9, 1865 was indeed the end of a tragedy. CUTTING OFF THE SOUTH In September of 1864, General William T. Sherman and his army cleared the city of Atlanta of its civilian population then rested ever so briefly. It was from there that General Sherman and his army began its famous "march to the sea". The march covered a distance of 400 miles and was 60 miles wide on the way. For 32 days no news of him reached the North. He had cut himself off from his base of supplies, and his men lived on what ever they could get from the country through which they passed. On their route, the army destroyed anything and everything that they could not use but was presumed usable to the enemy. In view of this destruction, it is understandable that Sherman quoted "war is hell" (Sherman, William T., Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. Westport, Conn.:Greenwood Press, 1972). Finally, on December 20, Sherman's men reached the city of Savannah and from there Sherman telegraphed to President Lincoln: "I beg to present you as a Christmas gift the city of Savannah, with 150 heavy guns and plenty of ammunition, and also about 25,000 bales of cotton" (Sherman, William T., Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. Westport, Conn.:Greenwood Press, 1972). Grant had decided that the only way to win and finish the war would be to crunch with numbers. He knew that the Federal forces held more than a modest advantage in terms of men and supplies. This in mind, Grant directed Sherman to turn around now and start heading back toward Virginia. He immediately started making preparations to provide assistance to Sherman on the journey. General John M. Schofield and his men were to detach from the Army of the Cumberland, which had just embarrassingly defeated the Confederates at Nashville, and proceed toward North Carolina. His final destination was to be Goldsboro, which was roughly half the distance between Savannah and Richmond. This is where he and his 20,000 troops would meet Sherman and his 50,000 troops. Sherman began the move north in mid-January of 1865. The only hope of Confederate resistance would be supplied by General P.G.T. Beauregard. He was scraping together an army with every resource he could lay his hands on, but at best would only be able to muster about 30,000 men. This by obvious mathematics would be no challenge to the combined forces of Schofield and Sherman, let alone Sherman. Sherman's plan was to march through South Carolina all the while confusing the enemy. His men would march in two ranks: One would travel northwest to give the impression of a press against Augusta and the other would march northeast toward Charleston. However the one true objective would be Columbia. Sherman's force arrived in Columbia on February 16. The city was burned to the ground and great controversy was to

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

A Shattered Silence in The Chosen Essay Example

A Shattered Silence in The Chosen Essay Example A Shattered Silence in The Chosen Essay A Shattered Silence in The Chosen Essay Essay Topic: The Chosen Nobody likes to be given the â€Å"silent treatment†, but imagine having all of your young life be a long and grueling silence; irritation and aggravation are natural reactions to when one is ignored or has been given a response of silence. Danny is distraught, he beats himself up over why his father acts the way he does, but he still has the mind to believe that it is for a reason. Throughout his life, Danny has been given the response of his father’s silence, a mystery to many, for any situation besides the study of the Torah. These long silences from Danny’s father is strange and misunderstood by everyone who interprets it, but Danny soon learns why his father has raised him in a silent tornado of confusion, pain, and misery. Throughout Chaim Potok’s The Chosen, he illustrates how Danny and Reuven both struggle with silence in many ways and how it is a mystery to the both, brings pain into their lives, and the way silence makes one realize who they real ly are. The silence brings confusion into the large array of emotions, which the characters of The Chosen all have experienced in their lifetime making it a mystery of it being good or bad. We start off this novel with the unknown silence between Danny and Reuven; how they â€Å"lived within five blocks of each other and neither of us knew of the existence of the other.† (11) This gives the reader a way to understand not only the silence between the two boys, but the silence that Hasidic Jews and non-Hasidic Jews share due to their varying ideas and interpretation of the Torah. The boys share the silence of being unaware of each other because of these beliefs. Chaim Potok shows this confusion through Reuven: â€Å"Im all mixed up about you. Im not trying to be funny or anything. I really am mixed up about you. You look like a Hasid, but you dont sound like one. You dont sound like what my father says Hasidim are supposed to sound like† (86). Reuven is in silence for who Hasidi